- Petrofsky, J., Schwab, E., Lo, T., Cuneo, M., Lawson, D.. "The thermal effect on the blood flow response to electrical stimulation.." Med Sci Monit 13.10 (2007): CR1-CR7. Wounds, especially in the elderly, can be life threatening. One modality which allegedly increases blood flow (BF) as an aid to heal chronic wounds is electrical stimulation. This technique applies electrical current (ES) across wounds. However, while many studies show positive findings, others do not. The purpose of this investigation was to investigate some of this inconsistency in results by determining the effect of environmental temperature on the circulation of the skin which may negate the effects of electrical stimulation in a clinical setting. Material/Methods: Ten people with no wounds, controls (C), and 12 people with wounds (W) were examined in a thermally neutral or cool room (20 degrees C) and a warm room (34 degrees C) to observe the effect of reducing sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity on the response to 5 and 15 mA sine wave biphasic ES delivered by 2x2 cm surface electrodes. Results: C and W subjects showed a greater BF in the skin in a warm room. In group C, after 30 minutes of stimulation at a current of 15 milliamps, BF increased significantly (p (01/2007)
- 255. Petrofsky, J.S, , Schwab, E., Cuneo, M., George, J., Kim, J., AlMarty, A., Lawson, D. . "Current distribution under electrodes in relation to current and skin blood flow; are modern electrodes really providing the current during stimulation that we believe they are? ." Journal of Medical Engineering and Technology 30. (2006): 386-391. (01/2006)
- 254. Petrofsky, J.S., Schwab, E., Cuneo, M., George, J., Kim, J., AlMarty, A., Lawson, D. . "Interaction between autonomic outflow and blood flow during electrical stimulation in normal skin and in and around wounds.." American Journal of Physical Therapy . (): -.
- Brand, L., and E. Schwab"The Rainbow is all in Your Head." Origins 01 01 2005: 45 - 56 (01/2005) (link)