Scholarly Journals--Published

  • Hsein YC, Huang SS  Hsu WT Qian,FH, Galvis AE  Su CH  Yo CH & Lee CH. Community-onset Anaerobic Bloodstream Infection, Predisposing Factors, and Impact on Survival: A Prospective Cohort Study. Microbial Risk Analysis. 24. 100261. Abstract Background Few studies have examined the outcomes and predisposing risk factors for anaerobic bloodstream infections (BSIs). Objective To determine the survival impact of aerobic versus anaerobic BSI, a prospective cohort study was conducted. Methods We prospectively enrolled emergency department patients at a tertiary medical center with BSIs determined by laboratory testing between 2015 and 2016. Anaerobic and aerobic BSIs were compared for demographics, comorbidities, and sources of infection. Several independent risk factors were identified in a multivariable logistic regression model. Using propensity score (PS) matched data, an analysis of survival effects associated with anaerobic BSI has been conducted. Results Over a 2-year period, there were 1,166 episodes of BSI, of which 61 (5.2%) occurred as anaerobic episodes. Anaerobic BSIs were strongly associated with intra-abdominal infection (odds ratio [OR] 6.03, 95%CI 2.78–13.09), liver abscess (OR 3.92, 95%CI 1.47–10.45), skin and soft-tissue infection (OR 2.65, 95%CI 1.26–5.62), and metastatic cancer (OR 2.40, 95%CI 1.13–5.08) as the main positive predictors. Negative predictors included diabetes mellitus (OR 0.38, 95%CI 0.18–0.78), thrombocytopenia (OR 0.33, 95%CI 0.18–0.60), and urinary tract infection (OR 0.15, 95%CI 0.04–0.62). Anaerobic BSIs were not associated with worse prognosis after PS-matched analysis (hazard ratio [HR] 1.40, 95%CI 0.44–4.41) in our cohort. Conclusions A significant percentage of community-onset BSI was due to anaerobic BSI. Anaerobic BSI can have a detrimental outcome if there are underlying comorbidities, high-risk infection sites, and inappropriate antibiotic choices. The findings of our study may contribute to the prescription of empiric anti-anaerobe antibiotics. Link: (04/2023) (link)
  • Arrieta A, Galvis AE, Osborne S, Morphew T, Imfeld K, Enriquez C, Hoang J, Swearingen M, Nieves DJ, Ashouri N, Singh J, Nugent D. Use of COVID-19 Convalescent Plasma for Treatment of Symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infection at a Children's Hospital: A Contribution to a Still Inadequate Body of Evidence. Children (Basel). 2023 Feb 10;10(2):350. doi: 10.3390/children10020350. PMID: 36832478; PMCID: PMC9955755. bstract Data on COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) safety and efficacy in children and young adults are limited. This single-center prospective, open-label trial evaluates CCP safety, neutralizing antibody kinetics, and outcomes in children and young adults with moderate/severe COVID-19 (April 2020–March 2021). A total of 46 subjects received CCP; 43 were included in the safety analysis (SAS); 7.0% < 2 years old, 2.3% 2–<6, 27.9% 6–<12, 39.5% 12–<19, and 23.3% > 19 years old; 28 were included in the antibody kinetic analysis (AbKS); 10.7% < 2 years old, 10.7% 6–<12, 53.8% 12–<19, and 25.0% > 19 years old. No adverse events occurred. The median COVID-19 severity score improved (5.0 pre-CCP to 1.0 by day 7; p < 0.001). A rapid increase in the median percentage of inhibition was observed in AbKS (22.5% (13.0%, 41.5%) pre-infusion to 52% (23.7%, 72%) 24 h post-infusion); a similar increase was observed in nine immune-competent subjects (28% (23%, 35%) to 63% (53%, 72%)). The inhibition percentage increased until day 7 and persisted at 21 and 90 days. CCP is well tolerated in children and young adults, providing rapid and robust increased antibodies. CCP should remain a therapeutic option for this population for whom vaccines are not fully available and given that the safety and efficacy of existing monoclonal antibodies and antiviral agents have not been established. Keywords:  convalescent plasmaCOVID-19 treatmentsymptomatic SARS-CoV-2pediatrics (02/2023) (link)
  • Arrieta A, Galvis AE, Morphew T, Ehwerhemuepha L, Osborne S, et al. Safety and Antibody Kinetics of COVID-19 Convalescent Plasma for the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Cases of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Pediatric Patients. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2021 Jul 1;40(7):606-611.   bstract Background: Therapies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its life-threatening respiratory infection coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been evaluated, including COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP). Multiple large reports of CCP treatment in adults exist. Pediatric data on CCP safety and efficacy are limited. Methods: Single-center prospective, open-label trial looking at safety, antibody kinetics and outcomes of CCP (10 mL/kg, max 1 unit) treatment for COVID-19 in hospitalized pediatric patients with moderate to severe disease or at high-risk for serious illness. Results: Thirteen patients were enrolled. No infusion-related adverse events occurred. No hematologic or metabolic adverse events were noted during hospitalization or at 3-weeks. Ten patients had clinical improvement by day 7 (WHO eight-category ordinal severity scale for COVID-19). Following CCP, anti-SARS-CoV-2 anti-nucleocapsid IgG increased significantly at 24 hours and high levels were sustained at 7- and 21-days. Transient IgM response was noted. Twelve patients (92.3%) were discharged home, 9 (75%) by day 7 post-CCP. One remained on invasive ventilatory support 42 days after CCP and was eventually discharged to an intermediate care facility. The single patient death was retrospectively confirmed to have had brain death before CCP. Conclusion: CCP was well tolerated in pediatric patients, resulted in rapid antibody increase, and did not appear to interfere with immune responses measured at 21 days. More pediatric data are necessary to establish the efficacy of CCP, but our data suggest benefit in moderate to severe COVID-19 when used early. Other immunologic or antiviral interventions may be added as supported by emerging data. (07/2021) (link)

Online Publications

  • Galvis, A.E.; Bucayu, R.; John, R.; Guner MD, Y.; Arrieta, A.C.; Nieves, D.J. Antibiotic Stewardship in Nonoperative Management of Perforated Appendicitis: Oral Antibiotics Are an Alternative. 2022, 2022120110. Abstract The standard of care for nonoperative appendicitis patients involves ongoing antibiotic therapy. Yet, there is variability regarding the decision to continue outpatient parenteral antibiotic treatment (OPAT) or transition to oral (PO) antibiotics. Methods: In our single-center retrospective study, we reviewed 46 pediatric patients who underwent nonoperative management of perforated appendicitis with Interventional Radiology (IR) percutaneous drainage. We reviewed age, ethnicity, hospitalization length, antibiotic choice, route and duration, and culture data. Results. Thirty-eight [83%] patients went home on OPAT, 6[13%] on PO, and 2[4%] completed therapy while inpatient. Based on culture susceptibilities of the 38 OPAT patients, 29[76%] had oral antibiotics as an option. The three most common organisms in those sent home on OPAT included?Enterococcus faecalis?(38 [100%]),?Bacteroides?spp (33 [87%]) and?Escherichia coli?(27 [71%]). All patients who grew?Pseudomonas aeruginosa?had an oral antibiotic as a treatment option; similarly with 93% (25/27) of?E. coli,?81% (13/16) of?α-hemolytic Streptococcus?spp, and 76% (29/38) of?Enterococcus faecalis.? Conclusions: ?Nearly 80% of patients sent home on OPAT had PO antibiotic regimens options based on the culture susceptibility profiles. This data indicates that using cultures and susceptibility data can help guide antibiotic management, significantly reducing PICC line placement and likely reduce healthcare costs and complications associated with central lines.   (12/2022) (link)