Scholarly Journals--Published

  • Kim, Y.-M. and Cejas, D.M. (2023), Empowering differences: Disability in child neurology training. Ann Child Neurol Soc. First author, letter to editor     (08/2023) (link)
  • Kim, YM, Chin, E.M., Fahey, M., Gelineau-Morel, R., Himmelmann, K., O'Malley, J., Oskoui, M., Shapiro, B., Shevell, M., Wilson, J.L., Wiznitzer, M., and Aravamuthan, B. (2023), SIGnature Libraries: A roadmap for the formation of special interest group libraries. Ann Child Neurol Soc. Objective “SIGnature Libraries” channel the dynamism of academic society-based special interest groups (SIG) to systematically identify and provide user-oriented access to essential literature for a subspecialty field in a manner that keeps pace with the field's continuing evolution. The libraries include literature beyond clinical trial data to encompass historical context, diagnostic conceptualization, and community organization materials to foster a holistic understanding of how neurologic conditions affect individuals, their community, and their lived experience. Methods Utilizing a modified-Delphi approach, Child Neurology Society's Cerebral Palsy (CP) SIG (n = 75) administered two rounds of literature submissions and ratings. A final review by an 11-member international advisory group determined threshold ratings for resource inclusion and the library's final structure. Results Seventy-nine articles were submitted for the first Delphi round and 22 articles for the second Delphi round. Survey response rates among SIG members were 29/75 for the first round and 24/75 for the second round. The advisory board added additional articles in the final review process in view of the overall project goal. A total of 60 articles were included in the final library, and articles were divided into seven sections and stratified by rating scores. A process for ongoing revisions of the library was determined. The library will be published on the Child Neurology Society website and made publicly accessible. Conclusions The CP SIGnature Library offers learners an unprecedented resource that provides equitable access to latest consensus guidelines, existing seminal datasets, up-to-date review articles, and other patient care tools. A distinctive feature of the library is its intentional large scope and depth, presented in a stratified fashion relative to the consensus-determined importance of each article. Learners can efficiently navigate the library based on individual interests and goals, and the library can be used as core curriculum for CP education. (04/2023)
  • Cerebral palsy in child neurology and neurodevelopmental disabilities training: an unmet need Journal of Child Neurology; Abstract Background Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common cause of childhood motor disability. However, there is limited guidance on training of child neurologists and neurodevelopmental disability (NDD) specialists in the care of individuals with CP. We sought to determine training program directors’ impressions of the importance and adequacy of training in the diagnosis and management of CP. Methods In this cross-sectional study, all 82 child neurology and NDD program directors were asked to complete a survey querying program characteristics, aspects of training in CP, importance of CP training, and perceived competence at graduation in CP care. Results There were 35 responses (43% response rate). Nearly all program directors (91%) reported “learning to diagnose CP” as very important and most (71%) felt that “learning to manage CP” was very important. While most program directors reported trainees to be very or extremely competent in CP diagnosis (77%), only 43% of program directors felt that trainees were very or extremely competent in CP management. Time spent with CP faculty was associated with higher reported competence in CP diagnosis (p=0.03) and management (p<0.01). The presence of a CP clinic was associated with higher reported competence in CP management (p=0.03). Conclusions Child neurology and NDD program directors reported that training in CP is important for residents; however, a significant proportion felt that residents were not very well prepared to manage CP. The development of CP curricula and exposure to CP clinics may improve training, translating to better care of individuals with CP. (01/2022)
  • Role of child neurologists and neurodevelopmentalists in the diagnosis of cerebral palsy A survey study Bhooma R. Aravamuthan, Michael Shevell, Young-Min Kim, Jenny L.Wilson, Jennifer A. O'Malley, Toni S. Pearson, Michael C. Kruer, Michael Fahey, Jeff L. Waugh, Barry Russman, Bruce Shapiro, AnnTilton Neurology Oct 2020, 10.1212/WNL.0000000000011036; DOI:10.1212/WNL.0000000000011036 Objective To contextualize the role of child neurologists and neurodevelopmentalists (CN/NDDs) in cerebral palsy (CP) care, we review the changing landscape of CP diagnosis and survey stakeholder CN/NDDs regarding their roles in CP care. Methods The optimal roles of the multiple specialties involved in CP care are currently unclear, particularly regarding CP diagnosis. We developed recommendations regarding the role of CN/NDDs noting: (1) increasing complexity of CP diagnosis given a growing number of genetic etiologies and treatable motor disorders that can be misdiagnosed as CP, and (2) the views of a group of physician stakeholders (CN/NDDs from the Child Neurology Society Cerebral Palsy Special Interest Group). Results CN/NDDs felt that they were optimally suited to diagnose CP. Many (76%) felt CN/NDDs should always be involved in CP diagnosis. However, 42% said their CP patients were typically not diagnosed by CN/NDDs and 18% did not receive referrals to establish the diagnosis of CP at all. CN/NDDs identified areas of their expertise critical for CP diagnosis including knowledge of the neurologic exam across development and early identification of features atypical for CP. This contrasts with their views on CP management, where CN/NDDs felt they could contribute to the medical team, but were necessary primarily when neurologic co-existing conditions were present. Discussion Given its increasing complexity, we recommend early referral for CP diagnosis to a CN/NDD or specialist with comparable expertise. This contrasts with current consensus guidelines which either do not address or do not recommend specific specialist referral for CP diagnosis. (10/2020)
  • Kim, Young-Min et al. A 12-Year-Old Girl With Encephalopathy and Acute Flaccid Paralysis: A Neuropathological Correlation and Cohort Review.  Pediatric Neurology, 2017 Jan; 66:5-11. doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2016.08.004. Epub 2016 Sep 8. (01/2017) (link)
  • Ananth AL, Robichaux-Viehoever A, Kim YM, Hanson-Kahn A, Cox R, Enns GM, Strober J, Willing M, Schlaggar BL, Wu YW, Bernstein JA. Clinical Course of Six Children With GNAO1 Mutations Causing a Severe and Distinctive Movement Disorder. Pediatr Neurol. 2016 Jun;59:81-4. doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2016.02.018. Epub 2016 Mar 17. (06/2016) (link)
  • Kim, Y.M. ‘late february.’ (2011) Journal of Medical Humanities, 2011; 32:371. (2011)

Books and Chapters

  • Cerebral Palsy:  DiagnosisSection IV, Chapter 34Neurodevelopmental Pediatrics: Genetics and Environmental Influences Book chapter on the diagnosis of cerebral palsy.~150 hours in research and preparing manuscript (02/2023)
  • Cerebral Palsy (1960-present).   Neurodevelopmental Disabilities section of text:  Child Neurology: Its Origins, Founders, Growth and Evolution 2nd Edition.  PUBLISHED 9/2021. History of cerebral palsy from 1960s to present. This book is a history of the field of Pediatric Neurology comprised of historical writings on the development of certain disease concepts, subspecialties, and biosketches.  I wrote the section on the history of cerebral palsy in modern times. Published 9/2021 (09/2021)
  • Contributor to 'Grand Rounds:  Devotional Stories' LLU Press, 2021 (08/2021)
  • Morris, S., Kim, Y.M., Waubant, E., Van Haren, K., Mar, Soe. ‘Acute Flaccid Myelitis.’ Pediatric Demyelinating Disease of the Central Nervous System and Their Mimics:  a case-based clinical guide.  Editors: Lotze, T., Waubant, E. Springer Publications. 2017   (2017)


  • A Pathogenic RHOBTB2-variant causes an Angelman-like phenotype. Presented at the American College of Medical Genetics meeting in 2019. (01/2019)