Scholarly Journals--Published

  • McBride, D., Freier, M.C., Hopkins, G., Babikian, T., Richardson, L., Helm, H., Hopp-Marshak, H., Broward, M., Sector Health Care Affairs. "Quality of Parent-Child Relationship and Adolescent HIV Risk Behavior in St. Maarten.." AIDS Care 17.1 (2005): S45-S54. The highest incidence rates of HIV/AIDS in the Caribbean are recorded in heterosexual and youth populations. With sparse prevention and intervention programmes in place, there is a pressing need to address the HIV/AIDS risk of youth. The objective of this analysis was to describe the extent of youth risk behaviour in St. Maarten and explore the relationship between quality of parental-child relationship and adolescent HIV risk behaviours. The sample consisted of 1,078 students (age range 14?18, mean 15.6 (s.d. 1.7). The data were collected by self-report survey in the Spring of 2001 in the classrooms of all seven secondary schools in St. Maarten. The survey instrument included demographic information, and used questions derived from the Center for Disease Control's (CDC) Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) to assess health risk behaviour prevalence, including tobacco, alcohol, and drug use, and sexual activity. The survey also asked youth to rate their relationship with their parents. Analysis showed a relatively high rate of risk behaviour in this school population. Multi-variate analysis showed that a ?great? relationship with both parents, as perceived by the student, was significantly associated with lower rates of tobacco and alcohol use as well as lower rates of sexual activity. (06/2005) (link)
  • Freier, M. C., McBride, D., Hopkins, G., Babikian, T., Richardson, L., Helm, H. . "The Process of Research in International Settings: From Risk Assessment to Program Development & Intervention." Journal of Urban Health Sup 4.82(3) (2005): iv9-iv15. Although there are many challenges, international HIV prevention research and program evaluation are critical to advances in the health and welfare of people around the globe. While there is an increasing amount of literature describing outcomes of international prevention programs, there is sparse information regarding the process of developing and implementing international research. This brief report describes key elements in the development of collaborative international prevention research and programmatic implementation (01/2005) (link)
  • Baum, M., Freier, M.C., Freeman, K., Babikian, T., Ashwal, S., Chinnock, R., & Bailey, L.. "Neuropsychological Outcome of Infant Heart Transplant Recipients." The Journal of Pediatrics 145. (2004): 365-372. OBJECTIVE: To assess long-term neuropsychological outcomes of infant heart transplant recipients. STUDY DESIGN: Fifty-five children (mean age, 6.4 years) with a primary diagnosis of hypoplastic left heart syndrome or other cardiac disorders participated in the study. Six areas of risk were assessed (birth; preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative status; long-term medical complications; and socioeconomic factors). Neuropsychological evaluations included the following: Wechsler Scales of Intelligence, Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, Berry Visual Motor Integration Scale, Comprehensive Evaluation of Language Function, and Achenbach Child Behavioral Checklist. RESULTS: Intellectual functioning scores revealed a mean full-scale IQ of 81 +/- 19. Intraoperative and postoperative variables (bypass time, hospital course, and lowest posttransplant pH), long-term medical complications (serious infections and posttransplant surgical procedures), and socioeconomic factors were associated with cognitive functioning. Visual-motor functioning was also related to bypass and total support time. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term outcomes reveal low-average neuropsychological functioning and are related to intrasurgical-postsurgical, long-term medical, and socioeconomic factors. The neuropsychological and psychosocial functioning of infant heart transplant recipients will be important to address as they mature during adolescence and adulthood. (09/2004) (link)
  • Freier, M. C., Babikian, T., Pivonka, P., Aaen, T., Gardner, G., Baum, M., Bailey, L., & Chinnock, R. "A longitudinal perspective on neurodevelopmental outcome after infant cardiac transplantation.." The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation 23.7 (2004): 857-864. BACKGROUND: With improvement in medical outcomes, the current research has shifted toward understanding and enhancing the quality of life after pediatric heart transplantation. Previous research has indicated that infant heart transplant recipients are generally at risk for neurodevelopmental delays; however, no longitudinal studies exploring the patterns of development within this medical population have been performed. METHODS: Using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II, 39 children (2 to 38 months of age) who underwent heart transplantation in infancy ( (07/2004) (link)
  • Hopkins, G.L., Freier, M.C., Babikian, T., Helm Jr., H.W. McBride, D.C. Boward, M. Gillespie, S, & DiClemente, R. . "Substance Use Among Students Attending a Christian University that Strictly Prohibits the Use of Substances.." Journal of Research on Christian Education 13.1 (2004): 23-39. This study examines substance use at a church-affiliated university which prohibits the use of alcohol, tobacco, and drug substances. The purpose was to investigate the prevalence of substance use, the prevention efforts put forth by the university, and whether religious beliefs, which prohibit substance use, are protective. While the findings indicate that atcohol, tobacco and other drugs were used in varying degrees by tbis student sample, tbe overall use was significantly lower relative to a national comparison group. The data suggests that religion is a protective factor concerning substance use. However, since students use substances even at churcb-affiliated campuses with prohibitive substance use beliefs, the problem of bow to deal witb substance use remains. (01/2004)
  • Burley, T. & Freier, M.C.,. "Character Structure: A Gestalt-Cognitive Theory." Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training 41.3 (2004): 321-331. Most theories of behavior and therapy have tended to focus on why behaviors are present. By contrast, the theory and practice of Gestalt therapy have focused primarily on how behaviors are present. This article describes a Gestalt model of character structure and function from the point of view of Gestalt process theory in coordination with E. Tulving's (1985) concept of procedural memory from cognitive and developmental psychology. Current developmental research is used to clarify how character as an operating system is developed. This conceptual framework permits a description of how character functions and has implications for creating change in psychotherapy. Examples of the application of this formulation are provided (01/2004) (link)
  • Babikian, T., Freier, M.C., Tong, K., Nickerson, J., Wall, C.J., Holshouser, B.A., Burley, T., Riggs, M. & Ashwal, S. "Susceptibility Weighted Imaging: Neuropsychological Outcome and Pediatric Head Injury ." Pediatric Neurology . (): -. Traumatic brain injury is among the most frequent pediatric neurologic disorders in the United States, affecting multiple aspects of neuropsychologic functioning. This study assessed the efficacy of susceptibility weighted imaging as a predictor of long-term neuropsychologic functioning after pediatric brain injury compared with magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. Susceptibility weighted imaging is a relatively new method that is considered superior to traditional magnetic resonance imaging sequences for detecting hemorrhagic diffuse axonal injury. In this study, imaging and spectroscopy were acquired 6 +/- 4 days after injury. Measures of neuropsychologic functioning were administered to 18 children and adolescents 1-4 years post injury. Negative correlations between lesion number and volume with neuropsychologic functioning were demonstrated. Lesion volume explained over 32% of the variance in cognitive performance, explaining at least an additional 20% beyond injury severity and age at injury alone and 19% beyond magnetic resonance spectroscopic metabolite variables. Exploratory analyses resulted in notable trends, with lesions in deeper brain regions more strongly associated with poorer neuropsychologic performance. Improved detection of the extent of diffuse axonal injury following a brain injury will allow for a better understanding of its association with long-term outcome, which in turn can improve prognostic efficacy for effective treatment planning.